Saturday, May 23, 2020
Organisational Behaviour and Motivation Term Paper Organisational behaviour is described as A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behaviour within organisations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organisations effectiveness. (Robbins and Millet and Cacioppe and Waters-Marsh, 1998, p.10). An important area within organisational behaviour is motivation. Herzberg describes the main problem in business practice is, How do I get an employee to do what I want him to do (1991, p.13) Motivation is a word that is used to describe how eager a person is to complete a task. Motivation is the set of processes that arouse, direct and maintain humanÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Inkson and Kolb discuss the issue of expectancy theory, which is how an employee values the outcome of putting in a lot of effort in order to achieve a goal. ?Motivation declines when there is uncertainty of the lineages between performance and effort? (Inkson and Kolb, 1999, p.327) Outcomes can include bonuses and or praise (extrinsic rewards) and feelings of accomplishment (intrinsic rewards). Herzberg doesn?t believe in the giving of bonuses in order to increase productivity. Herzberg states that ?Hunger, a basic biological drive makes it necessary to earn money, and then money becomes a specific drive? (Herzberg, 1991, p.16). This means that once employees start being rewarded with money they won?t be able to work without it. Another firm believer of this is Kohn who states, ?When reward systems fail don?t blame the program, look at the promise behind it.? (1993, p.54). Kohns article describes incentives, as only bringing temporary compliance and once the rewards run out people will revert back to their old behaviours. Serious issues with incentives also include employees telling their superiors that everything is under control when it isn?t, just to save their bonus. Kohn then states that ?There are very few things that threaten an organisation as much as a hoard of incentive driven individuals trying to curry favour with the incentive dispenser? (1993, p.56). As described by Robbins demotivation can alsoShow MoreRelatedMotivation Theory And Expectancy Theory Of Motivation1742 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesemployeeÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour and actions. As per this case study, The Sunday Times obtained questionaries for who had already departing from the Western Australian (WA) Police force. According to survey officers of WA force who left the force they had some issues like bullying, corruption, illegal activities, discrimination on racist grounds, and they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get proper training and development at a work place. This problem mainly occurs in organisation when there is lack of motivation, lack of organisational justiceRead MoreLeadership And Learning : Organizational Learning1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLearning Organisational learning in leadership Jewon Na 11401132 Ã¢â¬Æ' Executive summary This report is to provide the ways in leadership and learning through organisational learning theories and examples of organisational, social and personal areas. Reflection of organisational theories to the leadership and learning is the main issue of the report and it will help to understand how the organisational theories will work in real circumstances. This report seeks meaning of organisational learningRead Morebusiness Assignment1024 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Higher National Diploma in Business Management (Part-time) BEHAVIOUR AT WORK Unit 3: Organisations and Behaviour Outcome 1: Understand the relationship between organisational structure and culture Outcome 2: Understand different approaches to management and leadership Outcome 3: Understand ways of using motivational theories in organisations Outcome 4: Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organisations SCENARIO AccordingRead MoreOrganizational Behavior Essay1746 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOrganisational Behaviour (OB) is the study of human behaviour in an organisation. It is a multidisciplinary field devoted to the understanding individual and group behaviour, interpersonal processes and organisational dynamics. OB is important to all management functions, roles and skills. Since organisations are built up levels - individual, group and an organizational system as a whole, it is important for managers to understand human behaviour in order to meet the organizations overall goals.Read MoreDiscuss the Functions of the Formal and Informal Groups, How Can Each Type of Group Contribute to the Achievement of Organisational Goals. Provide Examples to Illustrate Your Answer.790 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDiscuss the functions of the formal and informal groups, how can each type of group contribute to the achievement of organisational goals. Provide examples to illustrate your answer. Ã¢â¬Å"Groups are formed as a consequence of the pattern of organisation structure and arrangements for the division of work.Ã¢â¬ Mullins, L. (2007). Management And Organisational Behaviour. Harlow; Prentice Hall. A group is seen as a number of people, who are socially and psychologically aware of each other. It isRead MoreOrganisational Culture and Motivation1496 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesReading INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE As Desson and Clouthier (2010) state, culture is an important factor in both attracting and retaining desirable employees. The extent to which an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and expectations are fulfilled will determine the motivation, job satisfaction and performance levels (Mullins, 2005, p. 499) which would be influenced by culture. XY Ltd (XY) established in 1944 has become the market leader in sea trade in Sri Lanka at present with the areas shipping, marine services andRead More Organisational Behaviour 1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand the behaviour of groups and individuals within themÃ¢â¬ Derek PughÃ¢â¬â¢s (1971) This influential definition of organisational behaviour was by Derek Pugh in 1971. Human behaviour is the way people act and react to situations and circumstances, each individual is different, therefore it is essential for an organisation to study human behaviour in order to understand the workforce. By observing and understanding each individual the organisation would improve performance; organisational behaviour can beRead MoreImpact Of Oc On Employee Performance1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesImpact of OC on employee/organisational performance There is a common consensus that employees behaviours are shaped by their culture (Denison, 1984, Furnham and Gunter, 1993). In an organisational context, management interest in a culture lies in what impact culture can have on the commercial or financial performance of a firm. Organisational performance (which is derived from employee performance) or success implies to the contributions or productivity of employees of an organisation. ResearchRead MoreMotivation : Extrinsic And Intrinsic Factors1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMotivation: An Evaluation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors Motivation has been widely studied and particularly explored in organisational behaviour. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are two areas of current discourse that have been critically examined for motivating workforce. This paper aims to: define extrinsic and intrinsic motivations; outline the competing views regarding the relationship between the concepts; and, apply the research findings to a workplace observation within the RoyalRead MoreOrganisational Behaviour1292 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOrganisation Behaviour is a study of a people, individuals and a group of peoples thinking, feeling and behaviour in a organisation. That is, it interprets people-organisation relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organisation, and while social system Ã¯ ¼ËNwlink.com, 2008). Because most of us work in organisations, learning organisational behaviour is able to help us understand, predict and influence the behavious of others in organisational setting, and trends in org anisational
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
INTRODUCTION A picture is worth a thousand words, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the common theme that is increasingly true in our world today. Many movie adaptations of great classic stories and literature works have been created with great visuals. Question is, do the adaptations really carry the same meaning and weight of the original written works or are the adaptions meant to open new perspectives for the audiences? This paper will, through the examining the settings, character, tone and storylines, compare and contrast the book version and movie adaptation of the classic short story Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street by Herman Melville. Herman Melville is regarded as one of the most influential authors of the 20th century; HeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However the movie version had one advantage which was the usage of music that instilled a sense of peculiarity and strangeness to the common sense of things. The book has more a mundane tone to the story, basically the typical office environment and the only display of activities was about BartlebyÃ¢â¬â¢s passive resistance. The movie had a more comical tone to many of the scenes such as when Rocky comically engaged in sweet or trashy phone talk with some nameless women or when Ernie repeatedly indulges himself in seemingly retarded behaviors during the city managerÃ¢â¬â¢s visit to the office. The subtle seduction of both the boss and the city manager by Vivian also greatly enhanced the overall comical sense of the movie. STORYLINE One main difference between the movie and the book is the ending. In the movie Bartleby died outside on the street near a homeless camp compared to his death in the prison yard in the book. In the movie after BartlebyÃ¢â¬â¢s death and the boss discovered a letter his BartlebyÃ¢â¬â¢s jacket. It was the letter he wrote for Bartleby as a recommendation letter in hopes of encouraging Bartleby to find another job, the letter became a dead letter. This realization was very impactful that it allowed the boss to focus on capturing BartlebyÃ¢â¬â¢s story as his primary mission in life. In an attempt to spread the story of humanity he went to a publisher and was met with rejection. In
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The human body is amazing. And even though there are many researchers that conduct studies on human anatomy, there are so many questions that are unanswered still to this day. We will write a custom essay sample on What is Gender Identity? or any similar topic only for you Order Now But what we do know has helped many people and continues to benefit certain theories that have been made over many centuries. One part of the human body that has lots of answered and unanswered questions is gender identity. There are many factors when it comes to gender identity. Some people think simply: Men act as men, women act as women, and man to be with woman. It has been thought to be the Ã¢â¬Å"right wayÃ¢â¬ for many centuries. But people are all different and to think that one way is the right way would be a misunderstanding of how the body works and what can happen to the human body if something is out of tune. Gender identity can be defined as a personÃ¢â¬â¢s inner sense of being male or female. Gender identity is believed to be developed during early childhood an effect of how the child was brought up by parents and societal influences. When the child reaches puberty, the influences are reinforced by hormones. Is gender identity a result of nature of nurture? What are the biological factors that play a role in gender identity? What is the difference between how the male and female develop? Does nature or nurture play a bigger role in gender identity? This will all be discussed later on in this essay, along with some of the arguments about sexual identity and how evidence from biopsychology may help resolve these arguments. There are many roles that play a part in sexual differentiation, as well as gender identity. Some of those roles are tied to biological factors or nature and yet others may be linked to environmental influences or nurture. It is impossible to know all the details, but we do know a great deal of how the body of a male versus the body of a female. The role of biological factors is largely dependent on hormones in the body system, as well as genes, gonads, chromosomes, and anatomy. During childhood, levels of circulating gonadal hormones are low, reproductive organs are immature, and males and females differ little in general appearance (Pinel 2009). When a child reaches puberty, the body makes significant changes. These changes can be seen and even heard, but these changes are also different in a boy than in a girl. While both male and female have many similarities, both also have many differences within the body. The differences in chromosomes and hormones are what completes the natural evolution of a child into an adult and ultimately decides whether the sex of a person is male or female at birth. When speaking of hormones, most people will think of testosterone for men and estrogens for women. But in fact, women produce testosterone and men produce estrogen. The difference is the ratio in which the body produces these two types of hormones. Men produce more testosterone and women produce more estrogen. There are many differences like the example above in the bodies of male and female. Increases in the release of gonadotropic hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone cause the gonads and adrenal cortex to increase their release of gonadal and adrenal hormones, which in turn initiate the maturation of the genitals and the development of secondary sex characteristics (Pinel 2009). Along with biological roles, it is also believed that the environment or surrounding of a person may be a factor of gender identity. Some of these nurture factors include oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self-concept, social and political attitudes, and perceptions and relationships about other people. Family, peers, schooling, religious training, mass media, and popular culture are just a few of the agents through which gender socialization happens (Crossman, 2012). Through this evaluation, making a conclusion on which has more of an influence on gender identity, nature or nurture, is a hard decision to make. Reading and hearing of stories of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s gender identity crisis has a pull towards nature, but nurture still has a big role in gender identity as well. Gender identity shapes how we think about others and ourselves and also influences our behaviors (Crossman, 2012). For example, gender differences exist in the likelihood of drug and alcohol abuse, violent behavior, depression, and aggressive driving. Gender identity also has an especially strong effect on our feelings about our appearance and our body image, especially for females (Crossman, 2012). Each of these can be linked both to biological and environment factors. The story that may have the most evident factor is the story of the twin that lost his penis. After losing his penis to a circumcision procedure, the doctor advised the parents to let doctors perform a surgery in which they castrate the boy and create an artificial vagina, and raising the boy as a female. The parents agreed, but it would later prove that their child was not acting or wanting to act as a girl. In fact, the child wanted to do things that a normal man would do and took no interest in any female activities, like playing with dolls. Even with treatment, the child still developed as a man would. When approached with an estrogen regimen at the age of twelve, the child refused not liking the changes of the estrogen. At fourteen, the now teenager decided to live as a male. Shortly after, the twinÃ¢â¬â¢s father decided to share the truth with his son. Now the kid could have an identity not only of himself but of his gender. He requested androgen treatment and surgery that would remove the breast and create a penis. The man regained use of his new penis with the help of androgen treatment, but was never able to reproduce children of his own. In the end, the doctors and parents could not change how the boy felt on the inside. Just how much influence does nurture have on gender identity? It could just depend on the situation in itself. There are many arguments that surround gender identity. Theorists have come up with their own opinions and views regarding gender and the why gender inequality exist. Functionalist theorists argue that men fill instrumental roles in society while women fill expressive roles, which works to the benefit of society (Crossman, 2012). Further, it is our socialization into prescribed roles that is the driving force behind gender inequality. For example, these theorists see wage inequalities as the result of choices women make, which involve family roles that compete with their work roles (Crossman, 2012). Symbolic interactionists look at gender from the micro perspective and examine gender stratification on a day-to-day level. For example, men are more likely to interrupt women in conversations and their workspaces generally reflect greater power. These theorists also focus on how gender roles are internalized by males and females (Crossman, 2012). Conflict theorists view women as disadvantaged because of power inequalities between women and men that are built into the social structure. For example, from this viewpoint, wage inequalities that exist between men and women result from menÃ¢â¬â¢s historic power to devalue womenÃ¢â¬â¢s work and benefit as a group from the services that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s labor provides (Crossman, 2012). Feminist theory emerged out of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement and aims to understand the position of women in society for the sole purpose of improving their position in society. There are four major frameworks that have developed out of feminist theory: liberal feminism, socialist feminism, radical feminism, and multiracial feminism. People will always have their own opinion about gender (Crossman, 2012). There may never be a way to solve these arguments, not until there is scientific proof or people can decide on which opinion they believe is all true. Gender identity is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of being male or female. Both biological (nature) factors and environment (nurture) influences play roles in both sexual differentiation and gender identity. Hormones are the biggest biological factor and the biggest environment influence is how one is brought up in their childhood. During the evaluation, I have thought about nature being more of a factor when it comes to gender identity, but have come to the conclusion that it may depend on the situation of a person. Through the years of research, many people have argued over gender identity and gender inequality. Theorists have formed many opinions surrounding gender identity and unless there is some kind of scientific proof the argument may continue. References Pinel, J. P. J. (2009).Ã BiopsychologyÃ (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Crossman, A.Ã (2012).Ã About.com.Ã Retrieved from http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of- Gender.htm How to cite What is Gender Identity?, Papers
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Describe about the strategic business plan. Answer: Introduction Canterbury renovation is an internationally acclaimed company, placed in Ottawa, Australia. Its an employee owned company. The plan behind this company is contracting and renovating. This company is there for you every time if you need to makeover your rooms, kitchen, bathrooms, balcony etc. it helps you to provide the best quality of color, wood, cement and all the equipments , needed for the renovations. A home is everyone s dream place. Everyone wants to build their home as per their capacity as financial conditions. A home is a place for peace, relief and love. Everyone builds their home with love and a passion. But when a home gets renovate from a boring shell to a new shell then the people of that home also feel happy to stay and to enjoy. From an outdated kitchen to a damping room Canterbury Renovation helps to every customer who want to have their house as a dream house after the renovation along with plumbing, electrical work, roofing, repairing and other important electrical work for the home improvements and renovation. Its a proud and one-step solution to all the home lovers Strategic Plan:- Astrategic business planis a step-by-step guide abusiness whichputs in writing to achieve itsbusinessgoals and objectives. The five primary elements of theplanare thecompanyvision, mission statement, critical success factors,strategiesand actions for objectives(CANTERBURY CONFERENCE, 2008). A strategic business plan allows any company about the clarification of the vision, the mission, analysis like SWOT and PESTEL helps to build the company more successful in the market of business. A strategic plan is not a business plan. Every company has its own strategy how to run the business on it. A strategic plan should be good in visionary, missionary, analytically good for which the company gets success. In this case this company is a company of constructing and renovating so the strategic plan should be more attractive because all customers will want their house as much more attractive to others. Vision and Mission:- For a renovation company its must that the strategic plan of that company should be that much attractive which will attract all the customers to choose it. A vision and a Mission of a company help to select the goals the values which help the company to increase its wings to all the extensions. As a part of the organization we need to see the business values and the customers values first. Then to establish this company as the best renovation company in Australia (BICKERSTETH, 1922). A Mission is a statement for a business. This is a renovating business. This business helps to renovate a house or a portion of a house like office, house, kitchen, bathroom, swimming pool, balcony etc. Our mission is to enhance the customers dreams by providing the best quality of equipments, the products, the ideas, and the innovation. Our customer support strategy is based upon total, no-compromise customer satisfaction. Values:- The next element is to address theValuesgoverning the operation of the business and its conduct or relationships with society at large, customers, suppliers, employees, local community and other stakeholders.The products, the behavior of the employees should be good enough to control its hold in the competitive market. Objectives:- Canterbury Renovation is a forum of makeover the home and the offices. The objective plan emphasizes on three areas: Respecting the resources of this company Sustainable lifestyles of the customers Getting ready for the future. Strategic plans:- TheStrategiesare the rules and guidelines by which the mission, objectives etc. may be achieved. The strategy should be:- The company's internal cash flow will fund all future growth.. All assembly work will be contracted out to lower the company's break-even point. Behavior of the customers. Product value Friendly atmosphere The business strategy should be unique. Carbon Reduction Strategy:- On reducing carbon the focus of the roadmap will be on the following three strategies: Avoid Through improved building designing, dynamic infrastructure, and starting education and observable initiatives (God lee, 2009). Reduce Implementing low carbon on and both of the site and using energy sources which are renewable. Design Planning Strategy:- Innovation- The innovation should be innovative and creative. Outdated design plans should be try with an innovation and in a creative way. Transportation Strategy:- The transportation strategy Canterbury Renovation transportation strategy aims to total reduction of trips related to work to the site by car to approximately 4% by the end of 2018 to support hand in hand to achieve the net-carbon zero emissions initiative in association with travel to and from work. Nearly 25,000 workers, 1,300 residents, and 30,000 daily visitors will be inspired for using the green travel options through direct links to already existing bus networks and trains, along with the ferry as proposed and bus routes that are new, cycle ways, and bike facilities(Nelson and Tumlin, 2000). The persuasion of these goals and other government agencies to achieve some of the following: Pedestrians To support major pedestrian access a devoted tunnel link and routes on surface will be done Rail With already existing rail services at Ottawa and the proposed Western Express City Relief Line. Integration will be done. Rail and Buses New services to Canterbury renovations along with supporting infrastructure. Cycling Encouraging cycling in and to the site will be done by laying new bike paths and centralized facilities Ferries Into the geological formation of the development new ferry terminals will be integrated. SWOTAnalysis:- SWOT Analysis is a valuable process to know about the Strengths and Weaknesses of an organization, and for recognizing both the Opportunities the company has and the Threats it might counter (Composites industry gets SWOT analysis, 2001). Strengths 1. Experience of more than15 years. 2. Internationally strong tie ups 3. Geographically benefit able for all the employees, suppliers and customers. 4. Financial communicational strong 5.Innovation and the creative plans, designs for every customers need Product quality is one of the valuable quality. We dont want our customers compromise with the quality. Weaknesses 1. Strong verbal communications. 2. Investments are needed for every companys growth. so need to keep a good relation with the investors. Opportunities 1. As a developing company it has a high growth. . 2. The idea of growing green building construction has a high opportunity factor for the company. Threats 1. The down falling market in Australia is an earliest attentive matter for the company as a larger share of the group's business area is settled in that area 2. With the rise in the prices of houses faster than the income of people do poses the greatest risk to the countrys biggest-ever housing boom and the organizations business aspects. PESTLE Analysis:- PESTLE analysis, which is also referred asPEST analysis,is a marketing principles idea. Political 1. The changes in the legislation and other political factors would provide the company with many challenges regarding the way the business can be run. 2. However, there are certain measures that are taken by the government in order to strengthen the business environment within the country. Economic 1. The economy of Australia has seen a trend of constant growth. This has mainly been facilitated by the existence of a large number of natural resources and other factors like the development of infrastructure(O'Reilly, 1986). 2. The exchange rate of the countrys currency has also been relatively stable. Social The increasing witness that social influences such as state of being poor, joblessness, uneducated, poor infrastructure and social geographic remoteness impact on health ranks. The poor people can get a platform to earn some money. The eligible one can get a job with his/her talent. A platform to all the artists designers and the creative ones. Technological This company needs a various type of technological equipments to continue the process. It need the software for making plans, designs etc(O'Reilly, 1986). Strategic Objectives and Future Strategy The strategic objectives should be to making the strong and attractive designs for what the customers get attracted by the design. The planning of the design, the execution of the design should be understandable. The representative should be good enough to communicate and to understandable the customers view. Another objective should be to extend the offices to more places. Provide all type mediums. Investors should be quantative. Third objective should be to extend the business and make the company as the one and only Renovation Company in Australia. The future strategies are following:- To make this company as the No1 Renovation Company. Innovation in Designs. Creative Plans. Experimenter ideas in Renovation. Should make a strong USP that defines the company from other competitor in this field. Priority The priority of the strategic plan is needed for the business growth. Behavior with customers, product value, and friendly atmosphere is generally necessary to all the construction business. If any employee misbehaves, the value of product is not up to the mark or there is no friendly atmosphere is there then customers can be dis-satisfied which is not good for business. Timeframe The strategies should be in a timeframe of 2 years. Its better to make a strategy for a short time because that can be judge within that if it gives profit or loss. If its not run in a good manner then its need to be changed and has to make a new strategy. Responsible party The main responsible parties are the employees, the manufacturer, the supplier and the investors. Employees are the main because they are the one who communicates with the customers, give the creative ideas, and suggest the plans. Manufacturers are the one who manufacture the product. So the product quality has to be good. Supplier is the one of the responsible party in this business. If they dont supply the products within the time then the customers can get angry. And the investors should invest more money for the business grows. Measurable Performance Measurable performance indicators are the people who work for the design to give its best in it. Due Diligence Due diligenceis an investigation of a business or person prior to signing a contract, or an act with a certainstandard of care. It can be a legal obligation. The relevant areas of concern may include the financial, legal, labor, tax, IT, environment and market/commercial situation of the company. Other areas include intellectual property, real and personal property, insurance and liability coverage, debt instrument review, employee benefits and labor matters, immigration, and international transactions. References BICKERSTETH, S. (1922). THE MISSIONARY MESSAGE OF CANTERBURY.International Review of Mission, 11(4), pp.515-525. CANTERBURY CONFERENCE. (2008).Ibis, 110(3), pp.409-415. Composites industry gets SWOT analysis. (2001).Materials Today, 4(3), p.21. Godlee, F. (2009). What's your carbon reduction strategy?.BMJ, 338(mar26 1), pp.b1272-b1272. Nelson, B. and Tumlin, J. (2000). Yosemite Regional Transportation Strategy: Creating a Public-Private Partnership.Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1735, pp.70-78. O'Reilly, J. (1986). The length of a pestle: A class exercise in measurement and statistical analysis.J. Chem. Educ., 63(10), p.894. Pacios, A. (2004). Strategic plans and longÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã range plans: is there a difference?.Library Management, 25(6/7), pp.259-269. SWOT analysis. (2008). [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Risk Management Agency.
Wednesday, March 25, 2020
As an anthropologist, my answer would be the relationship between ideology and power. Dominant ideologies form the baseline for consensus in almost every society. It is important to understand ideologies that constitute the normative baseline are a social construct of the dominant group, meaning they are not innate or fixed. They can be changed. I believe that historicism is responsible for all social and cultural phenomena, including poverty. Similar to many human problems, attempts at addressing poverty should ask what social and cultural structures allow poverty to exist?Poverty is a consequence of power imbalances and socially constructed inequality influenced by ideology. It is a human condition that operates with homeostasis functions (unique ideology), sustaining and perpetuating the culture Of poverty. It is important to note that merely identifying the root cause of poverty addresses only one aspect of the problem. Although imbalanced social structures are responsible for creating poverty, the condition of poverty, as well as the ideologies it produces must also be understood and addressed in order to end the cycle of poverty. We will write a custom essay sample on LSteele Ethical Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is necessary to take a holistic approach when addressing poverty as a human condition and be able to view cause and condition as separate, but equal concerns. Anthropologist Oscar Lewis created the term culture of poverty to show how poverty conditions ideology. He argued that ideologies learned in childhood perpetuate the cycle of poverty across generations and consistently identified four factors that sustain the culture of poverty: marginality, helplessness, dependency, and inferiority. Individuals born Into poverty are conditioned to believe they do not have the ability to be successful.It is important to understand that this theory is based on larger social and cultural factors rather than on the individual. The culture of poverty is more a state of thinking, a set of beliefs, as opposed to a state of being (Lewis Farce, 1959). II: Application of Utilitarianism, Demonology, and Rails Distributive Justice Arguments In this section Of the ethical reflection paper two items set forth in President Beams agenda aimed at reducing poverty in the United States will be argued from three ethical frameworks.These items include raising wages and investing in children. A: Raising Wages According to Michael Sanded, utilitarianism, a consequentialit y form of moral reasoning formulated by British philosopher Jeremy Beneath, locates morality in the consequence of an act or the state of the world that results from the thing you do (201 1). It sees our actions as ways to make the world better. The objective of utilitarianism is to maximize utility, or happiness, as exemplified by the guiding principle, the greatest good for the greatest number (Jimenez, 1998).From this perspective, raising the minimum wage would result happier, more fulfilled employees. For an employee, the ability to earn a living wage would increase their job satisfaction as well as their productivity, subsequently decreasing the companys rate of turnover as well as any associated costs of employee turnover. Demonology argues for action out of duty. A categorical form of moral reasoning formulated by German philosopher Emmanuel Kant, this ethical framework locates morality in certain duties and rights and views consequences as morally irrelevant.Emmanuel Kant says that insofar as our actions have moral worth, what confers moral worth is our capacity to rise above self-interest and inclination and to act out of duty. Michael Sanded simply states, The moral value of an action depends on the motive do the right thing for the right reason(2011). As mentioned by President Obama, under current law, a full-time worker with two children earning minimum wage will still raise his or her family in poverty. (Biotech, 2013).This account maintains that every individual has the right to earn adequate wages to support themselves, arguing for a moral obligation on behalf of workers currently receiving minimum wage benefits and the federal government of the United States to respect the dignity of their citizens as human beings by offering a morally acceptable living wage that would allow for the individual to rise above the poverty level. Moreover, allowing the market to determine workers wage benefits would not be acting in accordance with the duty to act.Rails Distributive Justice theory, developed by modern American philosopher John Rails, maintains each society enacts a ramekin of laws, institutions, and policies, resulting in unequal distributions of benefits and burdens amongst me beers of society (Lament, 1996). Future consequences society faces, rather than the moral duties of individuals are the primary concerns. According to this model, a living wage should be enacted as a tool to reduce income inequality. B: Investing in Children Ethnologist argue that education is a basic human right essential for the exercise of all other human rights (The Right to Education, 2014).
Friday, March 6, 2020
Introduction to the French Present Tense The French present tense, called le prÃ ©sent or le prÃ ©sent de lindicatif, is quite similar in usage to the English present tense. In French, the present tense is used to express all of the following: I. Current actions and situations Ã Ã Ã Je suis fatiguÃ ©.Ã Ã Ã I am tired.Ã Ã Ã Nous allons au marchÃ ©.Ã Ã Ã We are going to the market. II. Habitual actions Ã Ã Ã Il va lÃ ©cole tous les jours.Ã Ã Ã He goes to school every day.Ã Ã Ã Je visite des musÃ ©es le samedi.Ã Ã Ã I visit museums on Saturdays. III. Absolute and general truths Ã Ã Ã La terre est ronde.Ã Ã Ã The earth is round.Ã Ã Ã LÃ ©ducation est importante.Ã Ã Ã Education is important. IV. Actions which will occur immediately Ã Ã Ã JarriveÃ !Ã Ã Ã Ill be right there!Ã Ã Ã Il part tout de suite.Ã Ã Ã He is leaving right away. V. Conditions, such as in si clauses Ã Ã Ã Si je peux, jirai avec toi.Ã Ã Ã If I can, I will go with you.Ã Ã Ã Si vous voulez.Ã Ã Ã If you like. Note: The present tense is not used after certain constructions that indicate an action that will occur in the future, such as aprÃ ¨s que (after) and aussitÃ ´t que (as soon as). Instead, the future is used in French. The French present tense has three different English equivalents, because the English helping verbs to be and to do are not translated into French. For example, je mange can mean all of the following: I eat.I am eating.I do eat. If you want to emphasize the fact that something is happening right now, you can use the conjugated verb Ã ªtre en train de infinitive. So to say I am eating (right now), you would literally say I am in the process of eating: Je suis en train de manger. To learn how to conjugate French verbs in the present tense and then test yourself, please see these related lessons: Regular Verbs Ã -ER verbs -IR verbsÃ -RE verbs
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
MRI - Essay Example Slice thickness, is one important parameter, which divides the body part being examined into sections of varying width or thickness. The result of examination depends on the slice thickness. If it happens to be a minute problem, then the slice thickness will be small, because a larger slice thickness might result in erasing small lesions or pathologies. MRI is mainly used to look into the brain and the nervous system of human body to figure out the inconsistencies using the functional magnetic resonance imaging, as these parts happen to be the most delicate parts of human body. Prasad (2005, 292) states that the 'MR images are in effect computer generated visual reconfigurations of physical data such as the relaxation times of hydrogen atoms that are found abundantly in the body.' More than two third of our body is made up of hydrogen atoms. Hydrogen exists in different forms in our body. For example water (H2O), consisting of two H atoms and one O, makes up about 70 percent of human body. In addition Hydrogen atoms are also present in the tissues and fat present in human body. When magnetic energy is sent into our body using radio frequencies, the hydrogen atoms absorb the magnetic rays and send out the same magnetic energy, depending upon the extent of magnetisation. As the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms happen to be in the form of small magnets, so when the magnetic fields change in their surroundings, they respond accordingly. This movement is recorded by the MRI equipment which in turn is analysed by the healthcare professionals to decipher the exact composition. As the experiments started off with an emphasis on nucleus, in early days MRI was known as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Since the process itself is stated to involve very small amount of energy, the normal biochemistry of human body is not affected. The key requirements for performing an MRI include; A strong magnetic field through the primary magnet, emanating out of the a magnetic which could be a permanent, resistive or a superconductive Gradient magnets for fine tuning the magnetic fields The scanning table on which the patient is allowed to lie Attached computers and film for taking the printout of the scan The individual who is to undergo MR imaging is allowed to comfortably lie on a sliding table. The table is then slid into a cylindrical structure which is surrounded by the magnets. Once everything is in position, the magnetic field is turned on; this creates a 2-dimensional image of the particular body part of the person on the computer screens. A coil is placed around the body part/ object which is under observation for MRI, exclusively to pick up the signals for the image. Well, just to make things easier a talk-back system is also in put in place so that after the start of clinging sound the patient doesn't feel uncomfortable, and if required he can communicate with the radiologist. The procedure may last for about 25-50 minutes depending upon the requirements and the complexity of the patient condition. There are in general two to six imaging sequences, each lasting for about 10-15 minutes. Since the process involves magnetic fields, it is therefore advised that anybody having m etallic implants in their bodies must inform the radiologist beforehand, so that adequate